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Бджолоїдку звичайну (рос. назва щурка золотистая) Товариством охорони птахів обрано «Птахом – 2013 р.». Ці птахи поширені по всій Україні, але більш зичайні на півдні. Вид поступово розселяється, в останні роки відмічені перші випадки гніздування бджолоїдок на півночі Білорусії. Орнітологами 25 років назад чисельність цих птахів у Миколаївській області оцінювалась у 3,5-5 тис. пар. Приблизно такою вона є і зараз.

Бджолоїдка – птах пустельно-гірського походження, розміром з шпака: вага 75-80 г, розмах крил -36-40 см. Має яскраве забарвлення, переважають блакитно-зелені, руді та жовті кольори. Характерна особливість: у хвості два пера довші за інші. Голос дзвінке, м’яке щебетання «крю-крю-крю» або «к’юрт-к’юрт».

Прилітають до нас бджолоїки у кінці квітня-на початку травня, а відлітають в серпні-середині жовтня. Під час міграцій тримаються зграями, в липні-вересні чисельністю інколи понад 100 особин. Зимують на півдні Африки, в Аравії та Індії.

Бджолоїдки зазвичай оселяються колоніями в глинистих берегах лиманів, моря, річок; в карєрах, в місцях ерозії грунту по балкам, в котрих самостійно риють нори. На Кінбурніській косі вони гніздяться в піщаному грунті, в місцях забору піску та вздовж доріг. Висота обривів, в котрих гніздяться бджолоїдки, інколи сягає всяго 40-60 см. Хоча нещодавно у Харківській області знайдено гнізда цих птахів просто у степу на похилому схилі балки.

Ремонт старої нори займає 3-5 днів, будівництво нової – до 20 днів. В цьому процесі приймають участь самець і самка. В глиняному грунті довжина нори сягає 45-60 см, в піщаному до128 см. Діаметер отвору 8-10 см. В кінці нори знаходиться гніздова камера шириною до30 смта висотою до12 см.

Самка у кінці травня — на початку червня відкладає 5-8 білих яєць. Насидужють обоє птахів, але самка більше, біля 20 діб. Ще біля місяца батьки годують пташенят у норі. Потім дорослі та молоді птахи збираються у зграї, котрі кочують до відльоту. В якості присади птахи часто використовують дроти електромережі. Через південь Миколаївщини летять також бджолоїдки, котрі гніздяться в інших регіонах України та на півдні Росії.

Відношення до цих птахів двояке. Бджолоїдок цілком справедливо не долюблюють бджолярі, оскільки ці птахи можуть наносити шкоду пасікам, поїдаючи бджіл. Останніх вони підстерігають на місцях їх перельоту або ловлять прямо на пасіці, у повітрі. З іншої сторони це гарні птахи – прикраса ландшафтів, котрі поїдають багато комах – шкідників сільського господарства.

 

Орнітолог  НПП «Білобережжя Святослава» К.Редінов

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